Odell brewing bottle dating accuracy of carbon 14 dating
As cities and relative affluence spread, the market and demand for bottled goods increased rapidly.
At the same time, the expansion of the ever growing population into the farming regions of the Midwest created a need for methods and equipment to preserve foods. With the expansion of these demands came the need for suitable containers all of which had to be properly sealed to function.
With that said we move on to the closures most commonly found on bottles made during the era covered by this website - the 19th through mid 20th centuries.
The first is the ubiquitous cork closure, the use of which was at least partially pioneered by Dom Perignon.
Neither was this hermetic sealing to preserve sterility - the products involved did not need such protection, nor had the principle of heat sterilization itself been discovered.
All that was needed was to keep the contents from drying out, and to keep them clean, as from dust and other unwanted materials.
The most common closure during the mouth-blown bottle era was the simple and highly effective cork or cork stopper.
Virtually all major bottle types from the mouth-blown bottle era can be found with finishes that accepted some type of cork closure, so there is little if any cork closure related typing utility for mouth-blown bottles (empirical observations). Cork comes from the bark of the cork oak tree (Quercus suber and Q.
Others, like the Lightning closure, was invented in the 1870s and is still in use today.
Closures can also often assist in determining what type of bottle one has, i.e., what the bottle was most likely used for if (e.g., liquor, soda) it is not otherwise obvious.
In addition, a particularly useful recent (2016) work with an emphasis on commercial food bottles/jars is "Historic Bottle and Jar Closures" by Nathan Bender.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating